Educational Articles

  • Butorphanol is a partial opiate agonist/antagonist that is used as an analgesic, pre-anesthetic, antitussive, or antiemetic. The injectable form is used subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously, and the tablet is given by mouth. Side effects include sedation, ataxia, anorexia, or rarely diarrhea. Caution should be used in pets with liver or kidney disease, Addison’s disease, head trauma, or other CNS dysfunction, or in geriatric or severely debilitated patients.

  • Calcitriol is used off label and is given by mouth or injection to treat low blood calcium levels associated with low parathyroid hormone, as well as chronic kidney disease, certain cancers, and certain skin diseases. Side effects are uncommon if the dose is appropriate. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or those with high blood calcium, vitamin D toxicity, or malabsorption syndrome. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Calcium acetate is given off label and by mouth to treat elevated blood phosphorus levels, especially due to kidney disease. Side effects may include nausea or stomach upset. This medication should not be used in pets that are allergic to it or have high blood calcium levels. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Calendula is given directly on the skin or by mouth and is used off label and over the counter to treat skin inflammation or gastrointestinal ulcers. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects are uncommon but may include skin or stomach irritation. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or that are pregnant. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Capromorelin is an appetite stimulant liquid solution given by mouth, and is used to treat inappetence. Side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, increased drinking and urination, and intestinal sounds. This medication should not be used in pets allergic to it, and be used with caution in those with liver and kidney disease. If a negative reaction occurs, call your veterinary office.

  • Captopril is given by mouth and is used off label to treat congestive heart failure and high blood pressure. Give as directed by your veterinarian. The most common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, or lack of appetite. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other ACE inhibitors. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Carbamazepine is given my mouth and is used off label in dogs, cats, and horses to treat seizures, pain, and behavior disorders. Common side effects in animals are unknown, but may include dizziness, sleepiness, nausea, and vomiting. Do not use in pets that have recently used amitraz, are pregnant, or have bone marrow disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Carnitine is an amino acid nutrient given by mouth and is used to treat dilated cardiomyopathy and other heart diseases in dogs, or to treat hepatic lipidosis (liver disease) in cats. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects are uncommon but may include mild diarrhea or vomiting. Do not use the D form of carnitine, use the L (Levo-) form only. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Carprofen is used on and off label and is given by mouth in the form of a tablet to treat pain and inflammation. The most common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. Do not use this medication in pets with bleeding disorders, in pets that are allergic to it or other NSAIDs in the same class, or in pets concurrently using corticosteroids or other NSAIDs. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Cefpodoxime (brand names Simplicef ® and Vantin ®) is an oral antibiotic used to treat certain skin infections in dogs. It may be used off label to treat skin infections in cats and urinary tract infections in dogs. There are very few side effects of cefpodoxime, however it may cause complete loss of appetite in cats which can lead to serious complications. Some medications may interact with cefpodoxime, so it is important to tell your veterinarian about any medications that your pet is taking.