Educational Articles

  • Amlodipine is given by mouth and is used on and off label to treat high blood pressure in cats and dogs. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, sleepiness, or gingival (gum) overgrowth. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, are in shock, have aortic stenosis, or are in liver failure. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Ammonium chloride is used off label and given by mouth to treat metabolic alkalosis, struvite stones, and certain toxicities occasionally in small animals and more often in large animals. The most common side effects include pain at the injection site or stomach upset if given by mouth. Do not use in pets with severe liver, kidney, heart, or lung disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Amoxicillin is given by mouth and is used on and off label to treat certain bacterial infections in a variety of species. Common side effects include gastrointestinal effects such as lack of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other penicillins, cephalosporins, or other beta-lactam antibiotics, or in rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, hamsters, or other small mammals. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, also known as amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, is a synthetic penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is used to treat skin and soft tissue infections, and periodontal disease. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid comes in tablet form, or may be compounded as a liquid suspension. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid may cause stomach upset, vomiting and diarrhea. Allergic reactions are rare, but if you observe the following signs contact your veterinarian immediately: irregular breathing, rash, fever, puffiness and swelling around the face.

  • Ampicillin is an antibacterial medication given by injection or by mouth and is used on or off label to treat certain infections. Side effects include allergic reactions or gastrointestinal upset, and neurological signs when given in high doses. Ampicillin use is contraindicated in pets allergic to penicillins and in rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, or hamsters. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Antioxidants are given by mouth and are over the counter supplements used to treat side effects from inflammation. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects are uncommon but may include mild stomach upset. Use antioxidants cautiously in pregnant pets. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Aspirin is given by mouth in the form of a tablet, and is primarily used off label as an anti-clotting medication. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory, pain control, and fever-reducing medication. The most common side effects are gastrointestinal, such as vomiting, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and sometimes bleeding. Do not use aspirin in pets that have bleeding ulcers, bleeding disorders, asthma, pregnancy, or kidney failure. Aspirin should be used very cautiously in cats. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Atenolol is used off label and given by mouth to treat certain heart conditions in dogs, cats, and ferrets. Common side effects include tiredness and stomach upset. Contraindications include hypersensitivity to beta-blockers, heart failure, heart block, low heart rate, or certain lung disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Atovaquone (brand name MepronĀ®) is a drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. It is often combined with other drugs to treat specific infections. Side effects from atovaquone have not been reported; however, any side effects that you observe should be reported to your veterinarian. Any side effects that you observe should be reported to your veterinarian.

  • Azathioprine is an immune suppressing medication given by mouth or as an injection and is mainly used off label to treat immune-mediated diseases in dogs. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset and bone marrow suppression. This medication should not be used in pets that are allergic to azathioprine or are pregnant. It should be used with caution in pets with liver or kidney disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.